The Library of Congress (LC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. With the addition of his collection, which doubled the size of the original library, the Library of Congress was transformed from a specialist's library to a more general one. Although delayed during the Depression years, it was completed in 1938 and opened to the public in 1939. After a period of slow growth, another fire struck the library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection, including many of Jefferson's books. It opened its doors to the public January 3, 1939. Moravia-Silsia. Nova Scotia. [7], Evans' successor Lawrence Quincy Mumford took over in 1953. Baltic languages. This project was made official in the National Digital Library Program (NDLP), created in October 1994. The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s. English literature: Provincial, local, etc. Within a month, Thomas Jefferson offered to sell his personal library[12][13] as a replacement. Debate continued within the library community until the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1970 shifted the library back towards its legislative roles, placing greater focus on research for Congress and congressional committees and renaming the Legislative Reference Service to the Congressional Research Service.[7]. Ruthenia. 105). [30] Under Billington's leadership, the library doubled the size of its analog collections from 85.5 million items in 1987 to more than 160 million items in 2014. Malta, KKS - San Marino. James Madison is credited with the idea of creating a congressional library, first making such a proposition in 1783. By 1876, the Library of Congress had 300,000 volumes and was tied with the Boston Public Library as the nation's largest library. His library included subjects such as philosophy, history, law, religion, and many other topics. This process is done every three years, with the Register receiving proposals from the public and acting as an advisor to the librarian, who issues a ruling on what is exempt. The Library of Congress (LC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. The library also has off-site storage facilities for less commonly requested materials. [7], When Putnam retired in 1939, President Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed Archibald MacLeish as his successor. "[52], Carla Hayden was sworn in as the 14th librarian of Congress on September 14, 2016, becoming both the first woman and the first African-American to hold the position. [53][54], In 2017, the library announced the Librarian-in-Residence program which aims to support the future generation of librarians by giving them opportunity to gain work experience in five different areas of librarianship including: Acquisitions/Collection Development, Cataloging/Metadata, and Collection Preservation.[55]. Jurisprudence, KBU - Law of the Roman Catholic Church. [7], The library's expansion eventually filled the library's Main Building, despite shelving expansions in 1910 and 1927, forcing the library to expand into a new structure. Congress even took the initiative to acquire materials for the library in one occasion, when in 1929 Congressman Ross Collins of Mississippi successfully proposed the $1.5 million purchase of Otto Vollbehr's collection of incunabula, including one of three remaining perfect vellum copies of the Gutenberg Bible. Nearly all of the lists of holdings, the catalogs of the library, can be consulted directly on its web site. Slovenia (1992-), KL - Asia and Eurasia. Taiwan, 1-9665.........China (People's Republic, 1949- ), 1-9502........States, and cities of India (A-L), 1-9502........States, and cities of India (M-Z), 1-4990.........Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Common and collective state law, 8601-9199........Confederate States of America, 3001-3999........Mexico and Central America (General), 1-999.........General Laws of West Indies. [16] The library followed Jefferson's organization scheme until the late 19th century, when librarian Herbert Putnam began work on a more flexible Library of Congress Classification structure that now applies to more than 138 million items. Maryland. The centerpiece of the complex is a reproduction Art Deco movie theater that presents free movie screenings to the public on a semi-weekly basis. The library's Capitol Hill buildings are all connected by underground passageways, so that a library user need pass through security only once in a single visit. The THOMAS website included the full text of proposed legislation, as well as bill summaries and statuses, Congressional Record text, and the Congressional Record Index. "[20] In 1859, Congress transferred the library's public document distribution activities to the Department of the Interior and its international book exchange program to the Department of State. Jefferson's collection was unique in that it was the working collection of a scholar, not a gentleman's collection for display. "The library of congress becomes a world library, 1815–2005. Channel Islands, 1101-1199.........Organization of American States (OAS), 4001-4499.........St. Pierre and Miquelon, 1-9450.........Federal law. President Ronald Reagan nominated James H. Billington as the 13th librarian of Congress in 1987, and the U.S. Senate unanimously confirmed the appointment. Serbia (2006-). In 1965, Congress passed an act allowing the Library of Congress to establish a trust fund board to accept donations and endowments, giving the library a role as a patron of the arts. By 2008, the librarians of Congress had found replacements for all but 300 of the works that were in Jefferson's original collection. The collections of the Library of Congress include more than 32 million catalogued books and other print materials in 470 languages; more than 61 million manuscripts; the largest rare book collection[56] in North America, including the rough draft of the Declaration of Independence, a Gutenberg Bible (originating from the Saint Blaise Abbey, Black Forest) (one of only three perfect vellum copies known to exist);[57][58][59] over 1 million U.S. government publications; 1 million issues of world newspapers spanning the past three centuries; 33,000 bound newspaper volumes; 500,000 microfilm reels; U.S. and foreign comic books--over 12,000 titles in all, totaling more than 140,000 issues;[60] films; 5.3 million maps; 6 million works of sheet music; 3 million sound recordings; more than 14.7 million prints and photographic images including fine and popular art pieces and architectural drawings;[61] the Betts Stradivarius; and the Cassavetti Stradivarius. A 1962 memorandum by Douglas Bryant of the Harvard University Library, compiled at the request of Joint Library Committee chairman Claiborne Pell, proposed a number of institutional reforms, including expansion of national activities and services and various organizational changes, all of which would shift the library more towards its national role over its legislative role.

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