But, the difference in longitude for the Cape Verde Islands is 13 degrees. The Oxford Classical Dictionary, page 553-4 has the biographical details and a list of his written work. This text has in part F, ‘The Blest Isles Ignored and Identified: the Cape Verde Islands’. MT/CP: BOOK 4, CHAPTER 8. 10) Ferrar, M J, (2009), ‘Eratosthenes, Hipparchus and Strabo: Geographia’. Chapter 3: Mapping Country and County, discusses the sixteenth century   surveying and mapping knowledge. (Ptolemy's own latitude was in error by 14'.) In Book 5, 49, Herodotus tells the story of Aristogoras and the map which shows the land between Greece and Susa, basically Turkey and Iraq of today and the Royal Road from place to place. Those men made a statement which I do not myself believe, though others may,  to the effect that as they sailed on a westerly course round the southern end of Libya, they had the sun on their right– to the northward of them.’. Then having sailed from there for four days we sighted at night a land full of flames. Clarke, K. (1999), Between Geography and History: Hellenistic Constructions of the Roman World. This page was last edited on 10 October 2020, at 22:08. Berggren J L, and Jones A, 2000, ‘Ptolemy’s Geography: an annotated translation of the theoretical chapters’. Having established the usage of the 115 parts, it is now necessary to reconcile the world circle as having 83 parts (as indicated on the second circle on diagram 6), with a radius unit of 115 parts. There is obviously a great confusion within the details that were researched by Marinus the Tyrian and then written, and possibly not understood, by Ptolemy in the ‘Geographia’. Hence from the Equator there are 63 + 52 = 115 parts or degrees. The following text is from the Stevenson8 translation; ‘Aethiopia, which is below this land (Aethiopia below Egypt) and entire Libya, is terminated toward the north by the indicated southern boundary lines of the land which we have treated, which extends from the Great Bay of the Outer Sea to Rhaptum Promontory as we have said, and is located in 73° 50’East and 8° 25’South, then by part of the Western Ocean which is near the Great Bay: by unknown land toward the west and the south; toward the east by the Barbaricus Bay, which near the shallow sea is called Breve, from the Rhaptum Promontory even to the Prasum Promontory and the unknown land’. 24W to 16W and from an overlaid pair of maps, coincident point at Sacrum Promontory, the coastline of MT/CP is 12 degrees from Isla Canarias. Of course, it was essential in such cases for the Egyptians to become "Hellenized", to adopt Greek habits and the Greek language. [5] He died in Alexandria around 168. Ptolemy was concerned to defend astrology by defining its limits, compiling astronomical data that he believed was reliable and dismissing practices (such as considering the numerological significance of names) that he believed to be without sound basis. ERATOSTHENES OF CYRENE5 [39] It was first translated from Arabic into Latin by Plato of Tivoli (Tiburtinus) in 1138, while he was in Spain. It is, of course, impossible to answer this question definitively. FURTHER REFERENCES This point is given the co-ordinates by MT/CP of 2° 30’E: 38° 15’N, and geographically 90 West: 370 North. [29], Ptolemy presented a useful tool for astronomical calculations in his Handy Tables, which tabulated all the data needed to compute the positions of the Sun, Moon and planets, the rising and setting of the stars, and eclipses of the Sun and Moon. There within chapter 112 appears a description of the west coast of Libya, with sailing distances as follows; That zero longitude was stated as passing through Inaccessa Island, Pluvialia Island, Capraria Island and Ninguaria Island, as recorded in Book 4, chapter 6 of the ‘Geographia’. Then, in writing about the English cartographer, Christopher Saxton and his 1597 map of Britannia, it was necessary to discuss the prime meridian he had utilised, and thus this paper was abstracted from the MT/CP original papers. From the Detroit of Gibraltar, Hanno describes sailing west and south, where-as MT/CP have a slightly east of south bearing for their coastline. Ptolemy also devised and provided instructions on how to create maps both of the whole inhabited world (oikoumenè) and of the Roman provinces. The west coast of Libya is terminated by Hypodromus Aethiopia, 14E: 5° 15’N, although in the interior are noted the Arualtes Mountains, 33E: 3N and the Arancas mountains 47° 30’N: 1° 30’N. Across Europe, the Middle East and North Africa in the Medieval period, it was the authoritative text on astronomy, with its author becoming an almost mythical figure, called Ptolemy, King of Alexandria. Why should this be? HANNO THE CARTHAGINIAN2 ‘The Periplous of Pseudo-Skylax: An interim Translation, by Graham Shipley2002, available on line, under the translators’ name. Indeed, in Book 1, 27 Ptolemy states: ’We have learned also from merchants that from Arabia Felix they sail to Aromata, to Azania, to Rhapta, and to the regions called Barbary. an opposite voyage to that previously described. Rawlins D R, (2008), ‘The Ptolemy Geography’s Secrets’, DIO. [40] The Tetrabiblos is an extensive and continually reprinted treatise on the ancient principles of horoscopic astrology. In the 3rd or 4th century BCE appeared another text, ‘The Periplous of Pseudo–Skylax’. Berggren J L, and Jones A, 2000, ‘Ptolemy’s Geography: an annotated translation of the theoretical chapters’. Stevenson, Edward Luther (trans. Roller, D.W. (2006), Through the Pillars of Herakles: Greco-Roman Exploration of the Atlantic. But, actually 93/115 = 0.8087 and can be written as 4 x 23.25/ 5 x 23. The text translated by Stevenson8 has significant errors and should always be tested against another of the (10) translations. Rome. The fourth is entitled; The Text of Marinus the Tyrian and Claudius Ptolemy, Geographia: Book 4, chapters 1, 6, 7 and 8. His oikoumenè spanned 180 degrees of longitude from the Blessed Islands in the Atlantic Ocean to the middle of China, and about 80 degrees of latitude from Shetland to anti-Meroe (east coast of Africa); Ptolemy was well aware that he knew about only a quarter of the globe, and an erroneous extension of China southward suggests his sources did not reach all the way to the Pacific Ocean. 11) Ferrar, MJ, (2009), ‘The Mediterranean Sea of Marinus of Tyre and Claudius Ptolemy. One reason is that Ptolemy estimated the size of the Earth as too small: while Eratosthenes found 700 stadia for a great circle degree on the globe, Ptolemy uses 500 stadia in the Geography. 1. However, Pythagoras believed that the mathematics of music should be based on the specific ratio of 3:2, whereas Ptolemy merely believed that it should just generally involve tetrachords and octaves. Ptolemy, in his Geographia, uses the Hypparchus “model”, for the “coordinate mode” point positioning on the surface of the sphere by using a pair of numbers, the geographi- cal coordinates, which derive from the intersection of two orthogonal lines on the Earth- sphere, the parallels and the meridians.

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