[117] Other notable streets include Michigan Avenue, State Street, Oak, Rush, Clark Street, and Belmont Avenue. [282] In 2011, Chicago's murders fell another 1.2% to 431 (a rate of 15.94 per 100,000). These include the Chicago Picasso, Miró's Chicago, Flamingo and Flying Dragon by Alexander Calder, Agora by Magdalena Abakanowicz, Monument with Standing Beast by Jean Dubuffet, Batcolumn by Claes Oldenburg, Cloud Gate by Anish Kapoor, Crown Fountain by Jaume Plensa, and the Four Seasons mosaic by Marc Chagall. The city has two Major League Baseball (MLB) teams: the Chicago Cubs of the National League play in Wrigley Field on the North Side; and the Chicago White Sox of the American League play in Guaranteed Rate Field on the South Side. [259] The Chicago Park Boulevard System Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2018.[260][261]. These districts include the Mexican American neighborhoods, such as Pilsen along 18th street, and La Villita along 26th Street; the Puerto Rican enclave of Paseo Boricua in the Humboldt Park neighborhood; Greektown, along South Halsted Street, immediately west of downtown;[206] Little Italy, along Taylor Street; Chinatown in Armour Square; Polish Patches in West Town; Little Seoul in Albany Park around Lawrence Avenue; Little Vietnam near Broadway in Uptown; and the Desi area, along Devon Avenue in West Ridge.[207]. Even one of Chicago's economic strengths, its central location, he claimed isolated it from the cultural enrichment of "the coming and going of ships, as in New York. ", Such idiocy was laughable to Liebling, but by the time he arrived in Chicago in late 1949 accusations like "subversive," "anti-American," and "pink" were not to be taken lightly. Many themes are transgressive and derived from the works of authors such as William S. Burroughs. To Duffy the city was "a symbol of undiscriminating power--an aspect of America itself." Chicago's first railway, Galena and Chicago Union Railroad, and the Illinois and Michigan Canal opened in 1848. Throughout the 19th century Chicago had been reputed to be a place where, in Mark Twain's words, "they are always rubbing the lamp, and fetching up the genii, and contriving and achieving new impossibilities." The central element of the Port District, Calumet Harbor, is maintained by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. [108] The three sides of the city are represented on the Flag of Chicago by three horizontal white stripes. [69] This system for telling time spread throughout the continent. July 29, 1993 The racial composition of the city was: Chicago has a Hispanic or Latino population of 28.9%. [216] These visitors contributed more than US$13.7 billion to Chicago's economy. Additionally, Chicago is one of the eight cities in the United States to have won championships in the four major professional leagues and, along with Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia and Washington, is one of five cities to have won soccer championships as well. City, and later, state laws that upgraded standards for the medical profession and fought urban epidemics of cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever were both passed and enforced. From this depiction of municipal paralysis he turned to the political impotence and intellectual pretensions of the lakefront liberals. [218] It features 42 navy blue gondolas that can hold up to eight adults and two kids. Chicago contains a number of large, outdoor works by well-known artists. More than a quarter of American presidents emerge from the Midwest. [60] The desire to join the city was driven by municipal services that the city could provide its residents. The primary drivers of the economy are energy, healthcare, technology, service industry, manufacturing, insurance, government, and education. The proximity to Lake Michigan tends to keep the Chicago lakefront somewhat cooler in summer and less brutally cold in winter than inland parts of the city and suburbs away from the lake. Chicago averaged 1.12 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8.[313]. Chicagoan Irv Kupcinet, writing for Holiday in 1951, disagreed, maintaining that there was still "plenty of life in the Old Town yet." [45] The Chicago Board of Trade (established 1848) listed the first-ever standardized "exchange-traded" forward contracts, which were called futures contracts.[46]. The city has been a center for rave culture, since the 1980s. Richard M. Daley, son of Richard J. Daley, was elected in 1989. The Chicago Marathon is one of six World Marathon Majors. The Civic Opera House is home to the Lyric Opera of Chicago. [159] To these ethnic groups, the basis of the city's industrial working class, were added an additional influx of African Americans from the American South—with Chicago's black population doubling between 1910 and 1920 and doubling again between 1920 and 1930. [312], The city of Chicago has a higher than average percentage of households without a car. The city's diversified industrial base made it second only to Detroit in the value—$24 billion—of war goods produced. [145] Northeast winds from wintertime cyclones departing south of the region sometimes bring the city lake-effect snow.[146].

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